A. Geology

Makerwal lies in the foot hills of Surghar-Range and its underground coal workings are extended in various part of the range. Sedimentary rocks of marine and non-marine origin ranging in age from Permian to Pleistocene constitute most of the stratigraphic sequence in the Trans-Indus Mountains. Makerwal coal field produces coal from Hangu Formation of the paleocene age. The thickness of the coal seam ranges from than 2 ft to more than 10 ft which is of sub-bituminous quality. Anticlinal arcuate mountains are exposed in the Surghar Range where the potential of coal reserves lie in the Western/Northern limb of the anticline.

There is a main Makerwal fault which runs mainly North/South and has its maximum through 200 meters at Central Tunnel C-Section from where it splits into branches running North and Northwest. Another fault known as Zaraba fault which comparatively less faults also runs near C-Section. These faults, alongwith other seam are a constant obstacle in the drivages of the underground working and regular production of coal. The pyrites clay stone is at the base of the coal seam while black/gray shales are found in the roof strats.

B. Coal Reserves

The estimated coal reserves in the Main Makerwal and Gullakhel are as follows:

Recoverable reserves

Total geological reserves 23, 0340

Less 40% non recovery allowance 9, 2136

Total Recoverable Reserves 13, 8204 million tonnes

C. Quality of Coal

The found in Makerwal and Gullakhel area is of Sub-Bituminous quality. The approximate analysis of Makerwal coal is as under:

2 to 3.5 %
upto 35%
Volatile Matters
32 to 38%
Fixed Carbon
35 to 45%
Total Sulphar
3.5 to 6%
Calorific Value
10, 000 to 12, 000 BTU/Lbs